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動詞變化:「意向形」的文法與應用

by 阿哲
意向形第1類動詞表格

課堂上教到了重要的日語動詞變化「意向形」,其實它的敬體就是我們熟悉的「ましょう」,在口語裡面則常用「意向形」,我們先來看看如何將學過的動詞「ます形」改成「意向形」,再來學習它的文法跟應用。

秉持著讓大家輕鬆學日語的信念,先建立信心再往困難的部分學習,所以阿哲會依照第2類→第3類→第1類動詞的順序介紹。


第2類動詞如何改成「意向形」

只要確定是第2類動詞,直接「去掉ます+よう」就可以嘍,輕鬆愉快~

例如:

食べます→食べよう

見ます→見よう

★口訣:第2類動詞「去掉ます+よう」

意向形第2類動詞表格

第3類動詞如何改成「意向形」

第3類動詞只有兩個,一個是「します」,另一個則是「来ます」

跟第2類動詞相同,直接「去掉ます+よう」即可,例如:

します→しよう

勉強します→勉強しよう

另一個「来ます」也是一樣,但是要特別注意,它的き要變成「こ+よう」

きます→よう

★口訣:第3類動詞「しよう」「こよう」

意向形第3類動詞表格

第1類動詞如何改成「意向形」

請把「◇〇ます」前面的第二個音,也就是〇的地方,改成該行的「第5個音+う」,例如:

「行きます」第二個音是「き」,而か行是「かきくけこ」,第5個音是「こ」,所以

「行ます」→「行う」

「遊びます」第二個音是「び」,而ば行是「ばびぶべぼ」,第5個音是「ぼ」,所以

「遊ます」→「遊う」

★口訣:第1類動詞去掉ます「改成第5個音+う

意向形第1類動詞表格

什麼是「意向形」呢?

它代表了下列三種語氣:

1、意志:說話的人催促自己去做某動作。

→日本語を勉強しよう。(來讀日語吧!)

2、勸誘:邀約對方一起去做某動作。

→一緒に日本へ行こう。(一起去日本吧!)

3、商量:意向形+「か」有商量的意思,如同「…好嗎?」

→ラーメンを食べようか?(吃拉麵好嗎?)


意向形應用句型:

意向形+と思います(打算做某動作,但不做也沒關係)

A:明日何をしますか?(明天你要做什麼呢?)

B:美術館へ行こうと思っています。(我目前打算去美術館)

A:レポートは金曜日までですよ!(報告到週五截止喔!)

B:はい、今晩書こうと思っています。(好的、我目前打算今晚寫)


以上是動詞「意向形」的變化與應用的介紹,還是請大家多多自行練習加強功力喔~

★歡迎加入社團,接收阿哲最新文章★


喜歡請分享給親朋好友~
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