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為何日語會有漢字?「訓讀」跟「音讀」又是什麼?

by 阿哲
日本書記

阿哲帶團隨時要面對客人五花八門的問題,最常被問到的就是:

「為何日本這麼多漢字?他們不是有什麼平假名跟片假名嗎?」

之前教日語的時候,學生則是常問:

「為何漢字要分成訓讀跟音讀呢?」

只要有接觸過日語的人,或多或少都會有以上的疑惑吧!

今天就來跟大家好好聊一聊「漢字、音讀、訓讀」它們的精彩故事~


沒有任何文字的年代

話說在那個「日本」還不叫做「日本」的古代,比三國後期「魏志倭人傳」(西元280年~290年)所記載的「倭人」時代更早之前,日本是「完全」沒有文字的!

「什麼?沒有文字!?漢字、平假名、片假名都沒有!?這樣怎麼生活?」

沒有文字當然還是可以生活的,像我阿嬤不識字只會「說」台語也是安然走完她老人家一生,只是重要的事情,例如祖先的遺訓或是打獵農耕的要領等等,全部只能口耳相傳,要是不小心忘記了就沒了。甚至這塊地是誰的,是否做過什麼承諾,如果沒有「白紙黑字」寫下來,也是口說無憑…(疑?怎麼有種既視感?XD)

隨著國家規模的壯大,當時的日本人就開始覺得沒有文字真的很不方便。

沒有「白紙」沒關係,有竹簡、木片,用石頭也可以刻,但重要的是要有「黑字」啊!

可是一種文字的創造,由無到有,到定型普遍使用,不是那麼簡單的,中間需要好幾百年甚至上千年以上的時間醞釀演化,對於急需用字的日本來說根本等不及!

而當時整個世界上科技文化最進步的兩個超強帝國 ,西邊是羅馬,東邊是中國,而中國就在日本旁邊,不跟他學,難道要跑去跟羅馬學?加上有一些中國人跟韓國人開始移民到日本定居生活(日本稱他們為「渡來人」),除了農耕技術也順便帶來了「漢字」,就這樣漸漸地流傳起來。

但是真正有系統地輸入漢字,把漢字當作正式書寫文字,這要講到歷史上有名的「遣隋使」與「遣唐使」。

小國向大國朝貢,或是尋求庇護,或是請大國承認自己的統治權,在世界歷史上比比皆是。當時的日本也開始向中國朝貢,甚至主政者「聖德太子」,這位在日本無人不知、無人不曉的大人物,在中國「隋朝」年間(西元607年)開始,派出了四次的「遣隋使」。

就像德川幕府末期的「福澤諭吉」或是明治初期的「大久保利通」等人的歐美考察團一樣,看到了大國不論是政治、文化、建築、制度、宗教等等各方面,強盛的國力和自己國家有著天壤之別,讚嘆之餘,心裡的念頭就是:不管是什麼,通通給我來一點!全部包起來帶回去!

因為「無中生有」很困難,那直接「抄襲」就快多啦~

呃..是模仿…呃…喔不,是「致敬」,對!現在流行說「致敬」!

就這樣,「遣隋使」跟後來的「遣唐使」,每次都帶著滿滿的收穫,也順便帶著滿滿的漢字一起回日本。


漢字成為官方正式書信的文字

「OK!那日本有了漢字,就可以輕輕鬆鬆地,想寫什麼就寫什麼啦~」(灑花)

如果你這麼想就太傻太天真了,畢竟是「致敬」來的,要內化成自己的東西,還有很長的路要走哩。

大家知道中國文字傳進日本後,他們是如何使用的嗎?

直接拿來用!連文法都完全照抄!XD

可參考日本最早的史書:「日本書紀」(西元681年至720年完成)

日本書記

你看!一整個就是中國的文言文!不說你還以為是中國古書咧!

而當日本人要讀出發音的時候,會用日語去轉換翻譯,日本朝廷或幕府的官方正式文章一直到江戶幕府末期,都是這樣寫喔!這種書寫體稱為「漢文」

打個比方,這就像現在有一個美國人,雖然很正經地用中文寫出「吾愛吾妻」的「漢文」,但他會用美語讀做「i love my wife」一樣…

從小受中文教育長大的我們,要你「讀懂」一篇「文言文」都很難了,更何況是「寫」一篇?對當時的日本人來說就更辛苦了,除了專門的史書官吏或是朝廷官員,真正會寫會讀「漢文」的沒多少人。

「唉~難道沒有別的漢字用法嗎?」

有的,比你更痛苦的日本人這時候讓「萬葉假名」閃亮登場啦~


「萬葉假名」的出現

這邊先跟大家介紹一下,語言分成兩種,一是「表音文字」,二是「表意文字」。

像英語是最具代表性的「表音文字」,字母本身基本上沒有意義,用組合出的音節來表達意思,例如a、p、p、l、e這五個字母分開無意義,合成「apple」才表示為「蘋果」。

相對地,中文從象形文字演化而來,屬於「表意文字」,每個字都帶有本身的意思,例如看到「山」這個字就能表達「高聳入雲的超大土堆」,看到「海」這個字就能表達「一望無盡的水」。

疑?為什麼要跟大家說這個呢?因為這跟「萬葉假名」、「訓讀」、「音讀」都有重大的關連喔!


日本最早的和歌集:「萬葉集」(推測為西元759年~780年完成),裡面收錄了上至天皇貴族、下至平民百姓,不同主題的和歌大約4500首,裡面最有趣的就是把漢字拿來當作「表音文字」,例如:

日語的「山」唸做やま(ya-ma),「萬葉集」裡面把山寫成「夜麻」,因為「夜麻」的漢字發音大約等同於やま(ya-ma)。

還有「梅の花」唸做うめのはな(u-me-no-ha-na),「萬葉集」寫作「烏梅能波奈」,因為這五個字的漢字發音大約等同於うめのはな。

像我們熟悉的羅馬拼音那樣,這種把漢字直接拿來當作「表音文字」,叫做「萬葉假名」,這樣就可以「我筆寫我口」,想到什麼就寫什麼!比起正統的文言文寫法,實在輕鬆太多啦~

題外話,日本的「暴走族」有很多的標語是模仿「萬葉假名」的用法,「看起來」都很有氣勢!讓大家猜猜看各是什麼意思?文章最後再告訴大家答案~

  • 「夜露死苦」=?
  • 「怒羅江門」=?
  • 「愛羅武勇」=?

「訓讀與音讀」的出現

「我筆寫我口」是很棒啦,但是一個漢字代表一個音,漢字筆畫又多,和歌的歌詞不多也就算了,普通文章要是整篇用「萬葉假名」寫下來就太累了,因此漸漸演變出兩種系統:

「訓讀」:使用漢字代表的「意義」,但是用日語原本的發音。

就像剛剛介紹「萬葉假名」出現的例子,日語的「山」原本就唸做やま(ya-ma),寫成「夜麻」不但沒效率,也喪失漢字原有的意義,所以乾脆直接使用「山」這個漢字而唸做やま(ya-ma)。

那為何要叫做「訓讀」呢?是要「好好教訓你讀」嗎?(手拿皮鞭)

喂~當然不是教訓的訓啦…XD,是因為中文有一門學問叫做「訓詁學」,「訓」這個字的意思是指「用通俗的話來解說事物」,請想像一下古時候有兩個日本人,一個懂漢字,另一個不懂,他們會出現像這樣的對話:

「這兩旁低,中間高起來的字是什麼啊?」

「山這個字你看不懂喔?跟你講,這就是我們的やま!」

「那這個呢?」

「水這個字你不知道嗎?OK,它就是我們常說的みず!」

所以「訓讀」就是用「未傳入日本之前,日本原有的發音」來讀漢字,例如:

  • 「山」唸做やま(ya-ma)
  • 「水」唸做みず(mi-zu)
  • 「車」唸做くるま(ku-ru-ma)
  • 「木」唸做き(ki)

「音讀」:直接使用漢字的「發音」

相對於「訓讀」,「音讀」就是不囉唆直接使用「漢字原本的發音」來讀漢字,例如:

  • 「山」唸做さん(sa-n)
  • 「水」唸做すい(su-i)
  • 「車」唸做しゃ(sya)
  • 「木」唸做もく(mo-ku)

整理一下「訓讀」與「訓讀」不同發音的表格

漢字「訓讀」「音讀」
やま(ya-ma)さん(sa-n)
みず(mi-zu)すい(su-i)
くるま(ku-ru-ma)しゃ(sya)
き(ki)もく(mo-ku)

台語和日語發音雷同的原因

「山、水、車、木…日語這樣唸下來…疑?怎麼跟台語比較像!?」

是的,相信很多人會覺得日語許多發音跟台語很像,跟國語反而差很多,是因為古代中國黃河流域中下游的中原地區其實是講閩南語的音韻,在五胡亂華造成西晉滅亡,整個中原地區戰火不斷,掠奪與屠殺讓很多漢人整個家族從北方逃到福建泉州晉江流域一帶,也把語言帶下來。

▲西晉一開始中原地區還好好的
▲東晉以後,超慘…整個北方都被前秦佔領,有辦法能跑的漢人都往南方去了

因為我們的台語(閩南語)保留了古代中原的音韻,而日本所學到的中國漢字也是古代中原的音韻,才會讓人有種日語跟台語雷同的感覺。(PS. 當然漢字的發音還有分成吳音、漢音、唐音等等,主要是傳進日本的時間不同,發音上也會略有不同,那就不是我們這篇討論的重點啦。)


以上阿哲用輕鬆的口語方式重點說明,讓生硬的歷史變得比較好閱讀,相信大家對於日本「漢字」的由來應該有基本的瞭解了。如果覺得這篇「阿哲寫得不錯,不能只有我看到!」也請多多分享,讓更多朋友瞭解「漢字」、「訓讀」與「訓讀」的故事喔~

★歡迎加入社團,接收阿哲最新文章~


「萬葉假名」的解答

對了!最後要解答有關日本「暴走族」模仿「萬葉假名」用法的答案,你猜對了嗎!?

  • 「夜露死苦」=よ-ろ-し-く(yo-ro-shi-ku,請多多指教)
  • 「怒羅江門」=ど-ら-え-もん(哆啦A夢)
  • 「愛羅武勇」=あい-ら-ぶ-ゆう(i love you)←這真的太天才了!XDDD

喜歡請分享給親朋好友~
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