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日語初學必看!ます形如何分辨屬於第幾類動詞

by 阿哲
第二類動詞表格

日語初學者熟悉50音平假名片假名之後,會有一段學習上昇期,只要背好每一課的單字跟文法,就能順利地學下去,不會有太多挫折,以「大家的日本語」來說,第一本「初級Ⅰ」最後第13課上完都是很OK的。

但是新課本「初級Ⅱ」一買下去,剛翻開書第14課馬上就會面臨到第一個超級大魔王:動詞的「て形變化」!在這裡不知道有多少新手勇者陣亡…呃…是不知道有多少日語初學者投降放棄而不學日語…

請大家放心,阿哲會用最輕鬆簡單好記的教學循序漸進,在一步一步無形中就能掌握要領。之前上課也有教到在別的補習班曾經因「て形變化」放棄又重新再來的學生,這次透過阿哲的教法順利克服,還一直學完第四本「進階」呢!

OK!讓我們一起擊敗「て形變化」這個大魔王吧!!


動詞分成三大類動詞

學「て形變化」前,基本功夫就是要先學會「如何分辨這個動詞是屬於第幾類」,才有辦法去「て形變化」,甚至後面「辭書形」「意向形」等等的動詞變化,也都要靠它才行!

動詞分成三大類,分別是第1類動詞,第2類動詞,第3類動詞。

先瞭解什麼是「い段音」?「え段音」?

所謂的「い段音」就是50音每一行的第二個音,例如あ行:「あいうえお」的第二個音為「い」,か行:「かきくけこ」的第二個音為「き」,以此類推。

所謂的「え段音」就是50音每一行的第四個音,例如あ行:「あいうえお」的第四個音為「え」,か行:「かきくけこ」的第四個音為「け」,以此類推。

知道「い段音」與「え段音」之後,就要進入「ます形如何分辨屬於第幾類動詞」。


第1類動詞(五段動詞)

ます」前面的第二個音,也就是〇的地方,如果是い段音:

「い、き、し、ち、に、び、み、り」,就是第1類動詞(之前稱為五段動詞),

例如:買ます、書ます、泳ます、話ます、待ます、死ます、呼ます、 読ます、帰ます。

(會有一些看起來是第一類,卻屬於第2類的例外動詞,怕大家混亂先略過,之後再學即可)

第一類動詞表格

★口訣:ます前面い段音,為第1類動詞


第2類動詞(上一段或下一段動詞)

ます」前面的第二個音,也就是〇的地方,如果是え段音:

「え、け、せ、て、ね、べ、め、れ」,必為第2類動詞(之前稱為上一段或下一段動詞),

例如:考ます、掛ます、見ます、捨ます、食ます、止ます、入ます。

第二類動詞表格

★口訣:ます前面え段音,必為第2類動詞


第3類動詞(サ行或カ行變格)

第3類動詞(之前稱為サ行或カ行變格)最好認,因為它只有兩個,一個是「します」,另一個則是「来ます」。

而「します」能以「◇〇します」的詞組出現,

通常是兩個漢字,例如:「勉強します」、「散歩します」等等。

或是「外來語」+します,例如「コピーします」、「キスします」等等。

第三類動詞表格

★口訣:第3類只有「します」跟「来ます」


到這邊請大家先慢慢熟悉動詞如何分類,不要著急,打好底子,這樣後面的動詞變化才不會亂掉,隨時可以回來這篇文章複習喔~

★歡迎加入社團,接收阿哲最新文章★


喜歡請分享給親朋好友~

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