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新手必學!い形容詞與な形容詞的不同與使用方法

by 阿哲
日語形容詞比較標題

形容詞在一個語言當中,扮演很重要的角色。

日語的形容詞分為「い形容詞」與「な形容詞」兩大部分。

何謂「い形容詞」?何謂「な形容詞」?

該如何區分?用法又有什麼不同呢?

這也是初學日語者一定要瞭解的,

就讓阿哲好好來告訴大家吧!


い形容詞

最大的特徵就是字尾一定會有「い」,

而它的否定則是要去掉「い」加上「くない」。

い形容詞介紹圖

な形容詞

「な形容詞」則沒有一定規則,大多數為兩個漢字,

但也有許多例外,所以要靠大家多多充實字彙,

而它的否定則是直接加上「じゃない」,比較簡單。

日語形容詞介紹圖2

例外的「な形容詞」

另外要提醒大家的是,

一開頭有提到「い形容詞」的字尾一定會有「い」,

而在常用的「な形容詞」當中,有兩個具備這樣的條件:

一是「きれい」,一是「嫌い」(長得就是い形容詞的樣子)

所以改為否定時, 別誤以為它們是「い形容詞」 ,

直接去掉「い」加上「くない」喔!

日語形容詞介紹圖3

初學者易犯的錯誤

這邊我們先跳出來談談「の」這個助詞,

「の」在台灣應該是知名度最高的平假名,

連沒學過日語的人都知道,

我的家就是「私の家」、日本的車就是「日本の車」~

雖然說名詞之間表示「所屬」、「時間地點」、「比喻」等等都是用「の」,也幾乎等同於中文的「的」,

★但是千萬別以為所有的「的」都是用「の」喔!

因為很重要,所以阿哲特別強調!請把它筆記下來!


「い形容詞」修飾「名詞」

好,上面強調完不是所有的「的」都是用「の」之後,

讓我們把鏡頭轉回來今天的兩位形容詞主角,

除了否定的改法不同,兩者修飾名詞時也不一樣。

「い形容詞」修飾「名詞」的時候,直接加在名詞的前方即可。

例如「かわいい」是形容可愛的,甜美的。如果要說「可愛的小狗」就是

かわいい+犬=かわいい犬

日語形容詞介紹圖4

「な形容詞」修飾「名詞」

「な形容詞」修飾「名詞」的時候, 必須多加一個「な」與名詞連結。

這是它的最大特徵,也是被稱為「な形容詞」的原因。

例如「にぎやか」是形容熱鬧的,繁華的,如果要說「熱鬧的都市」就是

にぎやか++町=にぎやか

日語形容詞介紹圖4

重點整理

  • い形容詞的否定:去掉「い」加上「くない」。
  • な形容詞的否定則是直接加上「じゃない」。
  • い形容詞+「名詞」的時候,直接加就好。
  • な形容詞+「名詞」的時候,多加一個「な」與名詞連結。

最後再一次提醒大家: 千萬別以為所有的「的」都是用「の」喔!

台灣普遍喜歡日本的東西,只要跟日本有關,

不論是品牌或是產品總是受到歡迎,

因此有的商家明明跟日本一點關係也沒有,

也硬是要寫上幾句日語提升一下等級。

當然讓產品更有質感更暢銷絕對是沒錯,

但每次看到商品包裝或是宣傳招牌寫著類似

「美味しいのラーメン」、「格好いいの服」這種怪怪日語,

總會覺得老闆不懂日語沒關係,好歹也請個日語翻譯吧!?

不然多來阿哲日語教室這裡就不會發生那樣的糗事啦~XD


歡迎加入社團,接收阿哲最新文章★


喜歡請分享給親朋好友~
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